What is Trichomoniasis? (Sexually Transmitted Infection)
Come Trichomonas prostatite English French. The present report describes a case of persistent urethritis accompanied by prostatitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis in a young male patient. The importance of the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis come Trichomonas prostatite persistent or recurrent urethritis ie, testing samples from multiple sites is highlighted, with the aim of improving the clinical recognition of this pathogen.
Trichomoniasis is highly prevalent worldwide and is associated with urethritis 1 — 3 and prostatitis 45 in men. However, the importance of trichomoniasis in men is poorly understood, in part, due to difficulties in the diagnosis of the infection.
Detection of TV in men has traditionally been based on wet mount microscopy or culture of a single specimen, through either a urethral swab or a urine sediment. A case of persistent urethritis with prostatitis due to TV, which was diagnosed by direct microscopy and cultivation of samples from multiple sites, is reported. A year-old heterosexual man presented with a six-month history of persistent urethritis.
He complained of urethral discharge, dysuria and a recent onset of perineal and ejaculatory pain. He had already been treated with multiple antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, tetracycline and erythromycin, during his four previous visits to different clinicians. He had not received any metronidazole due to all previous negative investigations for TV on urethral and urine samples. He denied any extramarital sexual partners since his marriage one month come Trichomonas prostatite, but acknowledged three casual female partners before that.
He was using condoms with his wife for contraception. No information was available concerning clinical or laboratory follow-ups on any of his female contacts, including his wife. A physical examination revealed scanty mucoid urethral discharge. There come Trichomonas prostatite no evidence of inguinal come Trichomonas prostatite, genital lesions or intrascrotal abnormalities.
Three urethral specimens were obtained using calcium alginate swabs. The first swab was used to make a Gram stain preparation and to inoculate chocolate agar and New York City medium for the isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
The second swab was used for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence assay. Wet mount microscopy and inoculation of modified Diamond's medium were performed on the third urethral swab to detect TV.
After the physical examination, the patient was requested to provide 10 mL to 20 come Trichomonas prostatite of first-voided and midstream urine as part of the four-glass localization test previously described by Meares and Stamey 8. The patient then come Trichomonas prostatite prostatic massage and his expressed prostatic secretions were collected. Immediately after his prostatic massage, the patient collected 10 mL to 15 mL of urine.
Finally, the patient was asked to provide a semen specimen for TV culture. The semen was allowed to liquefy at room temperature for approximately 1 h before processing.
The Gram-stained urethral exudate showed more than 15 polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMNLs per oil immersion field and there was no evidence of intracellular Gram-negative diplococci. The direct immunofluorescence test for C trachomatis was negative. Cultures for Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum were negative after five days.
Wet-mount microscopy of all collected samples was negative for mobile trichomonad trophozoites, except for urine sediment after prostate massage. The first two Diamond's bottles that were inoculated by urethral swab and first-catch urine sediment, respectively, yielded negative results. TV come Trichomonas prostatite were observed in the third, fourth and fifth bottles, which were inoculated by prostate secretions, postprostate massage urine sediment and semen sample, respectively.
All TV cultures were checked on days 2, 5 and 7 after inoculation. Interestingly, all culture bottles were negative until day 5, when the first positive culture was found. Table 1 compares the results of direct microscopic examination of wet mounts and cultures based on different sampling sites. Comparison of the results of wet-mount microscopy, culture and the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMNLs from different sample sources.
The patient was diagnosed with TV infection and treated with mg metronidazole twice daily for seven days. He returned to the clinic for a follow-up come Trichomonas prostatite weeks after his first visit. The urethral discharge disappeared by day 3 of treatment and he acknowledged that his dysuria, perineal and ejaculatory come Trichomonas prostatite had all completely resolved.
Although follow-up cultures were suggested for test of cure, the patient rejected any additional investigations and did not return for further medical care. We did not have the opportunity to establish any TV investigations on vaginal samples from the patient's wife or his previous sexual partners. Persistent or recurrent urethritis develops in a small proportion of men come Trichomonas prostatite suffer from nongonococcal urethritis NGU ; TV probably accounts for only a minority of these cases 9 Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis is more complicated in male patients Although urethral swabs are usually considered to be the best specimen to diagnose TV infections in men, addition of other samples, such as urine or semen, increases the sensitivity of results.
In addition, testing of only one specimen even urethral swab may lead to an underdiagnosis of the disease 9 This is mainly due to the fact that Trichomonas can infect multiple sites of the male genitourinary tract, and come Trichomonas prostatite practice, it is possible to find organisms in one specimen but not in another when testing samples come Trichomonas prostatite the same individual.
Alternatively, the number of organisms in male specimen cultures is very small and this number usually does not increase over the incubation period. Data from Wong et al 12 suggest that the prostate gland may be involved in persistent or recurrent urethritis, especially among men with negative urethral cultures and, in this condition, a prostatic focus could serve as a source of urethral infection. In conditions in which the cultivation of multiple samples is necessary to diagnose trichomoniasis, using highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests, come Trichomonas prostatite as polymerase chain reaction, may be sufficient to detect trichomonads in a single sample 9.
In fact, men complaining of urethral discharge who sought treatment for NGU would currently be treated empirically. Current first-line recommendations doxycycline mg orally come Trichomonas prostatite daily for seven days or azithromycin 1 g orally in a single dose do not cover treatment for TV infection 10 For NGU that fails to respond to initial come Trichomonas prostatite, several alternatives may be considered.
Metronidazole 2 g orally in a single dose or mg orally twice a day for seven days plus azithromycin 1 g orally in a single dose or erythromycin mg orally four times daily for seven days are the current recommended regimens come Trichomonas prostatite Woolley et al 14 argued that the addition of metronidazole therapy did not significantly affect the number of persistent urethritis cases or the relapse come Trichomonas prostatite patients with NGU.
However, Price et al 15 showed that the addition of metronidazole to the syndromic management of male urethritis, in places where trichomoniasis is common, can not only eliminate the infection but may also help to reduce the transmission of HIV. There is no consensus of opinion in the management of come Trichomonas prostatite caused by TV. In one study 16two weeks of metronidazole mg twice daily was used to treat chronic TV prostatitis.
Skerk et al 17 demonstrated that TV eradication and clinical cure in patients with chronic prostatitis did not significantly differ with regard to the administered dose of metronidazole three doses of mg, come Trichomonas prostatite either come Trichomonas prostatite or 14 days.
We come Trichomonas prostatite that in our patient, the concurrent treatment of his partner s come Trichomonas prostatite unlikely. Our patient was treated with mg metronidazole twice daily for seven days because there is some evidence to suggest that the failure rate of a single dose is come Trichomonas prostatite if partners are not treated simultaneously Although his signs and symptoms completely subsided after treatment, we were unfortunately unable to prove TV eradication because no follow-up cultures were conducted.
These patients are subjected to repeated diagnostic evaluation and, although no infectious etiology has been found, they are often empirically treated with multiple come Trichomonas prostatite of antibiotics. The present case highlights the importance and necessity of performing accurate diagnostic procedures in the case of persistent or recurrent urethritis.
Collection of multiple specimens from different sites may increase the sensitivity of testing for Come Trichomonas prostatite in male patients with negative results by routine investigative methods. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Telephonefaxe-mail ku. Received Oct 2; Accepted Feb All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other come Trichomonas prostatite in PMC. Abstract The present report describes a case of persistent urethritis accompanied by prostatitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis in a young male patient.
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